By Brian Duignan
On March 17, a coalition of animal-rights, civil-liberties, and labor organizations, along with the independent journalist Will Potter, filed a lawsuit, Animal Legal Defense Fund, et al. v. Otter, et al., in federal district court against Idaho’s recently adopted ag-gag law, IC 18-7042. (Video warning: graphic content)
As do similar statutes in six other states, IC 18-7042 criminalizes, among other things, unauthorized video or audio recordings at any “agricultural production facility”. The evident purpose of the law, again as in other states, is to effectively prohibit undercover investigations of factory farms and slaughterhouses, which have exposed widespread, routine, and horrific animal abuse—as well as serious violations of food-safety, worker-safety, and environmental laws—over the course of nearly three decades. The negative publicity generated by such investigations has resulted in lost sales, expensive recalls, plant closures, and fines for the agricultural corporations involved, as well as prison sentences for workers convicted of animal cruelty. Rather than simply ceasing the criminal behaviour the investigations reveal, however, the agriculture industry has chosen to enact, through its representatives in state legislatures, laws designed to make it legally impossible to document and report such crimes—thereby ensuring that the crimes will continue.
Although ag-gag laws are obviously constitutionally defective, in part because they infringe First Amendment guarantees of freedom of speech and freedom of the press, until now only one of them—Utah’s—has been challenged. That suit, brought in 2013 by a group that included two animal rights organizations and Potter, is now on hold, as a federal judge considers Utah’s motion to dismiss the suit for lack of standing (i.e., on the grounds that the plaintiffs cannot prove that they have suffered or are likely to suffer a tangible injury as a result of the conduct alleged in the suit). The judge’s decision is expected on May 15.
IC 18-7042 was adopted in the wake of the release in 2012 of an undercover video (warning: graphic content) shot by a member of Mercy for Animals that showed how workers at the state’s Bettencourt Dairies treat cows: they punch them, beat them with canes, kick them in the face, stomp on them, violently wrench their tails to inflict pain, and drag them by the neck by a chain if they cannot walk. The video created significant embarrassment for Bettencourt and jeopardized its contractual relationships with Burger King and Kraft Foods.
Drafted by the Idaho Dairymen’s Association, IC 18-7042 was signed by Idaho’s governor C.L. Otter, a rancher, and immediately went into effect on February 28, 2014. Ten days earlier, Mercy for Animals had released a previously withheld segment of the Bettencourt video showing a worker sexually abusing a cow (warning: graphic content); the worker was convicted and served 102 days in jail.
IC 18-7042 specifically prohibits “interference with agricultural production”, which consists in part in making “audio or video recordings of the conduct of an agricultural production facility’s operations” without “the facility owner’s express consent”, or obtaining employment at an agricultural production facility through “misrepresentation” (e.g., by lying on an employment application) “with the intent to cause economic or other injury to the facility’s operations”. The penalties for violating the law are up to one year in prison and/or a fine of up to $5,000, as well as payment of restitution to the injured corporation equal to twice the amount of any economic damage it suffers as a result of the violation (by comparison, the maximum penalty for a first-time offense of animal cruelty in Idaho is six months in prison).
The suit filed in March argues that IC 18-7042 is unconstitutional on several grounds.
First, the law is an overbroad regulation of protected speech (video and audio recordings constitute speech), because it criminalizes “substantially more speech than the First Amendment permits”. Although designed and intended to limit the speech of animal-welfare advocates (problematic enough), IC 18-7042 would also infringe “a plethora of protected speech that is not even related to animal welfare, including [speech regarding\ worker safety, food safety, labor laws, and other types of agricultural industry misconduct”.
Second, IC 18-7042 discriminates against a certain kind of speech on the basis of its content and viewpoint, which is impermissible under the First Amendment. Only recordings of the operations of agricultural facilities are criminalized, not recordings of the operations of (say) “medical providers, defense contractors, banks, or childcare providers”, all of which are important industries not protected against undercover investigations by any similar laws. Moreover, the plaintiffs argue, the legislative record clearly demonstrates that the purpose of IC 18-7042 is to suppress speech expressing a particular viewpoint, which is also prohibited by the First Amendment. “Legislators were targeting the speech and expressive activities of certain individuals for discriminatory treatment,” according to the suit (the law’s legislative sponsor characterized the undercover investigators as “marauding invaders” practicing “terrrorism”, and the chairman of the Idaho Dairymen’s Association stated in reference to the law that “this is about exposing the real agenda of these radical groups that are engaged in terrorism”).
Third, IC 18-7042 violates the supremacy clause of the U.S. Constitution (Article VI, paragraph 2)—which declares that “the Laws of the United States . . . shall be the supreme Law of the Land . . . , any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding”—because it frustrates the purpose of provisions of three federal statutes (the False Claims Act, the Food Safety Modernization Act, and the Clean Water Act) that were designed to protect employees who report fraud or other illegal activity in their workplaces from retaliation by their employers.
Finally, the law violates the equal protection and due process clauses of the Constitution because it was enacted on the basis of an “improper motive” (in this case “animus towards a particular group of people”), as the U.S. Supreme Court held in U.S. Department of Agriculture v. Moreno (1973).
Although the coalition’s constitutional arguments are formidable, the outcome of the suit is far from certain. Idaho will probably follow the example of Utah and move to dismiss the suit for lack of standing. If the suit survives, it will be difficult to predict how the court will rule, in large part because there is no precedent—no other court has ruled on the constitutionality of an ag-gag law.