By Gregory McNamee
Rachel Touroo, DVM, is the director of the ASPCA’s Veterinary Forensics Sciences Program, located at the University of Florida in Gainesville.
Her work includes securing medical evidence in crime scene investigations—the vaunted CSI of television fame, now moved to the realm of animal welfare—and providing expert testimony in court. A noted specialist, Dr. Touroo investigated, among many other crimes, the infamous case of a dogfighting operation in Halifax, Virginia, which resulted in a string of convictions. The Veterinary Forensics Sciences Program, which she now leads, is the first animal CSI teaching laboratory in the United States within an educational institution.
Encyclopædia Britannica contributing editor Gregory McNamee conducted this interview with Dr. Touroo in May and June 2014.
Advocacy for Animals: What is the primary purpose of your laboratory, and what kind of cases do you typically work on?
Touroo: The primary purpose of the ASPCA Forensic Sciences Team is to assist law enforcement throughout the United States with cases of animal abuse. This team is made up of forensic veterinarians, a forensic psychologist, crime scene analyst, and forensic entomologist. Additionally, being based at the University of Florida provides us access to a variety of forensic experts.
The ASPCA Forensic Team assists law enforcement with a variety of cases, from large-scale cases such as dogfighting, cockfighting, puppy mills, and hoarding to smaller scale cases such as cases of physical abuse (blunt force trauma, sharp force trauma, burns, and the like) and sexual abuse.
Additionally, the ASPCA Forensics Team is dedicated to education and the development of novel research within the growing field of veterinary forensic sciences. The ASPCA has partnered with the University of Florida to offer the first Veterinary Forensics Certificate program and the first master’s degree program in the field in the United States.
AfA: I’ve heard your work referred to as “animal CSI,” which adds an element of drama and urgency to the matter. Are the cases you are asked to work on big ones—of the Michael Vick scale, say—or are you asked to look into smaller and more ordinary events as well?
Touroo: The cases that we are involved in can range from larger federal cases, working with agencies such as the FBI, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, to smaller more local jurisdictional cases.
AfA: Speaking of Michael Vick: Was his case an outlier, or have there been many others like it that we simply haven’t heard about?
Touroo: The Michael Vick case is not an outlier. We are continually working on similar cases of dogfighting throughout the United States. What made this case different was the involvement of a celebrity, which drew more attention to the case. Unfortunately, dogfighting is much more common than most people are aware of, and it occurs in almost every locality throughout the United States. The Vick case helped raise law enforcement interest in investigating and prosecuting dogfighting, which has brought many requests for assistance to the ASPCA.
AfA: How much of your time is spent in court, as opposed to in the laboratory? Are there any legal cases in which you’ve been involved that are, in your mind, important examples of victory—or, heaven forfend, of defeat?
Touroo: I have testified on more than 30 different occasions, having been qualified as an expert in veterinary medicine, veterinary forensic medicine, dogfighting, and cockfighting. Each case teaches you something, and each case is a step closer to ending animal abuse. Each case also helps us identify a prosecutor who recognizes the importance of taking animal cruelty cases seriously and who can share the message with colleagues.
AfA: In the matter of animal abuse, is it your impression that things are getting better over time? Or, in a time of economic turmoil and general, well, weirdness, are they getting worse?
Touroo: It is my impression that things are improving. We have seen the animal cruelty statutes strengthen across the United States, and with this has come the demand for veterinary forensic science. While it may appear that animal abuse is on the rise, this is likely because these crimes in many instances are now being treated as they ought to be, on a par with any other crime—whereas in the past, law enforcement or prosecutors may not have pursued charges of this nature.
AfA: Are the laws governing animal care and animal abuse fairly uniform from state to state? And are they sufficient to the task at hand, or do we need to advocate for more, better, or different laws?
Touroo: The laws governing animal care and abuse are not uniform from state to state and can even vary by locality within the state. Additionally, animal abuse, cruelty, and neglect are legal terms for which there are no uniform definitions. These terms are defined by the governing body and differ from state to state. Coming up with a standard set of definitions is a difficult challenge.
Some states have very strong legislation protecting animals, while many could be improved upon. As a modern society, we should continue to advocate for the humane treatment of animals and adequate protection of animals under the law in every state. We also need to consider that crimes against animals affect more than just animals: There is a strong and established link between human violence and animal cruelty. Crimes against animals can be a warning sign of future violent acts, and individuals who witness animal cruelty can become desensitized to violence. Animal abuse may also occur in conjunction with other crimes such as domestic violence and the illegal sales of drugs and guns.
AfA: If you were able to change one thing about your daily work, what might it be?
Touroo: Well, while I love what I do, it is disheartening to know that this is a job that needs to be done. If I had my way, I would put myself out of work, knowing that the abuse of these voiceless victims had been put to an end.