By Ira Fischer
Faced with mounting pressure from animal welfare organizations and bans and restrictions by local jurisdictions, the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus has finally relented on the use of elephants as entertainment.
Ringling’s announcement that it will phase out the use of elephants by 2018 comes after years of dwindling attendance in the wake of adverse publicity about the treatment of its elephants and other wild animals used as performers.
The victory in this long-standing battle belongs to the elephants caught in the trap of the Ringling circus, and the time is propitious to reflect upon what they endured during the last 133 years. For the most part, the circus is a wonderful event. The clowns, acrobats and other performers provide terrific entertainment. However, behind the rose-colored façade there is a dark side to the big top that has been kept far from public view.
The so-called “tricks” that wild animals are forced to perform is contrary to their nature. The image of a tiger jumping through a hoop of fire makes one wonder, why would an animal who is terrified of fire do this deathly trick? The spectacle of an elephant performing a headstand is no less curious.
The industry would have the public believe that circuses do not use cruel methods to train animals. However, the tools of the trade used by trainers belie this claim. Whips, tight collars and wire tie-downs are routinely used on big cats, while elephants are subject to being stricken with bullhooks (a heavy metal club with a point-and-hook at one end, sharp enough to pierce elephant hide). They are also disciplined with electroshock devices that keep them in a state of fear so they will perform on command. Much of the brutal treatment is inflicted upon baby elephants and is designed to break their spirit at a time when they should be with their mothers. Experts have opined that circuses teach children to disregard the feelings and rights of other living creatures. This raises the question: Does the use of wild animals as performers in circuses send a wrong message to children that cruelty to animals is acceptable? Inarguably, real educational value lies in seeing these magnificent creatures in a natural environment where children can learn to appreciate their true nature.
Denials by the circus industry about the treatment of elephants flies in the face of numerous undercover photographic and video footage revealing shocking beatings in training sessions. After an investigation by the USDA, Ringling paid a record $270,000 penalty under the Animal Welfare Act.
Wild animals in circuses also endure grueling travel demands in boxcars, trailers, and trucks. Elephants may be forced to stand for days while traveling, even in extremely hot and cold weather and without climate control. Big cats and bears are confined in cages so small that they can barely turn around. Elephants are highly intelligent, sensitive beings with strong family bonds and typically walk more than twenty miles in the wild. In circuses they are doomed to a life in captivity and may be kept shackled in chains for up to 22 hours a day.
In the last session of Congress, Representative Jim Moran introduced the Traveling Exotic Animal Protection Act (the Federal Circus Bill) into the House of Representatives. Rep. Moran observed: “[I\t’s clear that traveling circuses aren’t providing the proper living conditions for exotic animals.” Hopefully, the Ringling announcement will serve to invigorate members of Congress to reintroduce the bill and it will be signed into law without further delay.
With laws now banning wild animals in circuses in 27 countries and ordinances banning or restricting such events in dozens of jurisdictions in the US, the trend indicates that governments are finding the use of wild animals as performers unacceptable. The growing popularity of animal-free circuses, such as Cirque du Soleil, suggests that the public too finds objectionable circuses that feature animals as entertainment. Cole Brothers recent show in Winchester, Virginia, was held without the use of animals, to comply with a ban on exotic-animal exhibitions. Cole boasted that its humans-only show as “just as dazzling and just as amazing.”
There still remains much to be done to put an end to the use of all wild animals as entertainers in all circuses that hold them captive. It is incumbent upon lawmakers, in jurisdictions where circuses are hosted, to prohibit an event that is inextricably linked with extreme inhumane treatment of animals. Only then would the sad chapter of suffering endured by these remarkable beings be closed. This would represent a long overdue tribute to their birthright to be wild and free.